Diabetes affects up to 7% of all pregnancies and women may develop diabetes generally in the second trimester, termed as gestational diabetes (2%-5%). During pregnancy when blood sugar level increases is known as gestational diabetes. Gestational diabetes starts when the body is unable to make and use the insulin.
All forms of diabetes during pregnancy increase the risk for adverse outcomes for the mother and the infant. These risks include congenital anomalies, macrosomia, delivery complication and metabolic aberration. However, strict management of blood glucose level significantly reduces the risk.
Many women who develop gestational diabetes are overweight or obese. Adequate energy intake is crucial for appropriate fetal weight gain; a modest reduction of 30% is associated with improved glycemic control, as is aerobic exercise.
Specific Dietary measures:
1. Reduce the energy intake by 20% (consider additional energy 300kcal for pregnancy.
2. Restrict carbohydrate intake by 55% of total energy.
3. Space carbohydrate evenly throughout the day.
4. Eat several small meals and snacks versus large meals without snack.
Calories- 2175 kcal
Break fast- Multigrain bread toast (2), Egg omelette, Milk , Fruit( green apple)
Calories- 239kcal, protein- 13.5gm, fat- 5gm, carbohydrates- 34.6gm
Egg is very important during pregnancy as it is a good source choline which is beneficial for the growth and brain development of the baby.
Low fat Milk and yogurt provide proteins carbohydrates to the body.They are good source of calcium, which is important for bone health.Incase if the mother is lactose intolerant the she can opt for soy milk.
Green apple has lot of fiber which helps the digestive system to function smoothly. During pregnancy lot of wear and tear of DNA takes place. Green apple is a good source of antioxidant, prevent the DNA damage and also helps in maintaining glucose levels.
Mid- Morning- Kale Chana chaat, coconut water, Fruit (orange)
Kale chana chaat-
Calories- 198.5kcal, proteins- 8 gms, carbohydrates- 30gm, fat- NA
Calories- 46kcal, proteins- 2gm, fat- NA, carbohydrates- 8gm
Kale chana is a good source of soluble fiber that controls the absorption and release of blood sugar. Moreover, it has low glycemic index of 28 to 32 which means that carbohydrate when broken down will get digested slowly. The low GI causes blood sugar to rise slowly and leading to lower blood sugar levels. Kale chanas are the alternative good source of proteins for vegetarians.
Coconut water provides significantly less sugar than any other beverages. It naturally contains 6gms of sugar in 1 cup of serving. It is important to limit sugar intake during gestational diabetes. According to the research eating food rich in complex carbohydrates and low simple sugar may reduce the risk of progressing diabetes.
Coconut water is very good during pregnancy as it hydrates the body,reduces heartburn and constipation. It is good source of minerals like calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium. Coconut water is also good source of vitamins and antioxidants, helps in boosting immunity.
Orange has lots of benefits. One of them is that it’s loaded with strong antioxidant vitamin C, fiber which helps in regulating lipid levels, blood sugar levels, insulin levels in the body.
Lunch- Chapaties (3), chicken do pyaza, vegetables (cauliflower,peas), salad (onion, cucumber, tomato)
Chicken do pyaza-
Calories- 119kcal, proteins- 12.5gms, fat- 5gm, carbohydrates- 5.3gm.
Research says that low calorie vegetarian diet helps in controlling diabetes and regulating glucose levels in blood. A diet rich in fruits,vegetables and whole grains has much higher levels of soluble and insoluble fiber. Fiber helps in keeping the body satiated for a longer period of time as it takes time to break down thus keeping blood sugar levels under control. Eat plenty of non-starchy vegetables like green beans, bean sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower, mushrooms, green peas,radishes, onion, tomatoes, and turnip.
There are 2 types of carbohydrates-
1. Simple carbohydrate or sugars
2. Complex carbohydrates or starch.
Complex carbohydrates are described as good carbs. It’s best if we ear fruits milk and yogurt as part of mixed meal. The body will then absorb the simple sugars in the juice or dairy food very slowly. That’s because the sugars are mixed with other food elements, such as fiber and protein.
The glycemic index of a food is a measure of how quickly sugar is released into the bloodstream after food is consumed. Low glycemic index foods that are rich in fiber are an important part of a healthy diet.
Choosing foods with low glycemic index will help to manage gestational diabetes. That’s because low glycemic index foods take longer for the body to digest. Glucose is released very slowly into your bloodstream.
Examples- Apples, oranges, pear, peaches, beans, lentils, sweetcorn,porridge.
Tomatoes are also very good as it is good source of vit C (antioxidants),potassium, lycopene. Lycopene helps in preventing the risk of preeclampsia which pregnant women with diabetes are at risk.
Chicken is best protein choice as it does not have glycemic index.Hence, it’s intake will not increase glucose levels.
Evening- Fruits (strawberries, plums, phalsae), Moongdal pakori chaat
Moongdal pakori chaat-
Calories- 120kcal, proteins- 6.5gm, fat-5gm, carbohydrates- 17.5gms
Moongdal is called as powerhouse of all the nutrients.
Moongdals have low glycemic index that is 25 and also have a low glycemic load. Hence, it can be consumed safely. The low glycemic index, fiber and protein help to regulate blood sugar. It’s a good source of protein as well as fiber. It’s low in sodium as well as cholesterol. It is easily digestible and has oligosaccharides to prevent gas and bloating.
Dinner- Chapaties (3), dal (toor), vegetables (lotus stem), salad(lettuce, radish, tomato)
Lotus stem vegetable-
Calories- 40kcal, protein- 1g, fat- 2.5gms, carbohydrates- 10gm
Calories- 100kcal, protein- 8gm, carbohydrates17gm, fat- NA
Lotus root is one of the moderate calorie root vegetable. It is composed of several health benefiting phytonutrients, minerals and vitamins.
Lotus rhizome is very good source of dietary fiber (13%of daily requirement of fiber). Dietary fiber together with slow digesting complex carbohydrates in the lotus root help to reduce blood sugar levels, maintain body weight and to reduce constipation.
Water is an integral part of life and it also helps in regulating blood glucose levels. Drinking at-least 10-12 glasses of water daily can help in balancing blood sugar. Water consumption and blood sugar are related to the hormone vasopressin that controls water level in the body.When our body is dehydrated, vasopressin signals the liver to increase the production of glucose, which in turn increases the glucose level in the blood temporarily.
Toor dal is an excellent source of complex carbohydrates, protein and fibers. It also has high amount of iron, magnesium, calcium and B complex vitamins.