To report the use of rituximab to treat thyroid-associated orbitopathy (TAO) in a patient with a concomitant B-cell organ-specific autoimmune disorder-the stiff person syndrome (SPS).We present a case report and a review of the related literature.A 62-year-old man with SPS, latent autoimmune diabetes of the adult, and Graves-Basedow disease was referred to our medical center because of bilateral TAO. An ophthalmologic examination documented asymmetric bilateral NOSPECS (N = no signs or symptoms; O = only signs, no symptoms; S = soft tissue involvement; P = proptosis; E = extraocular muscle involvement; C = corneal involvement; and S = sight loss) class IV TAO (left eye>right eye) with a clinical activity score of 5 on a scale of 7. Magnetic resonance imaging of the orbits documented bilateral exophthalmos (left eye>right eye) due to retrobulbar fibroadipose infiltration, bilateral increase of extrinsic ocular muscle thickness, and enhancement of the left inferior rectus muscle on T2-weighted sequences. Because of concomitant incapacitating SPS and diet-controlled latent autoimmune diabetes of the adult, we excluded long-term corticosteroid therapy as an option and considered the use of rituximab, a mouse-human chimeric monoclonal antibody targeting the CD20 protein on pre-B and mature B lymphocytes. Rituximab was administered in accordance with the protocol for rheumatoid arthritis. During the subsequent 4 months, clinical signs and symptoms of TAO dramatically resolved (clinical activity score = 0 of 7) with a sustained improvement of the spastic paraparesis. The glutamic acid decarboxylase antibody titer remained high, and glycemic control and first-phase insulin secretion did not change.Treatment of active TAO with rituximab should be considered when standard intravenous pulse glucocorticoid treatment is contraindicated or ineffective and when SPS or other organ-specific autoimmune disorders with involvement of humoral autoimmunity are present, inasmuch as more than 1 disease may benefit from the use of this chimeric monoclonal antibody.