There are three main forms of diabetes: type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes.

a) Type 1 diabetes is believed to be caused by an autoimmune reaction (the body attacks itself by mistake). This response stops your body from making insulin. Roughly 5-10% of people with diabetes have type 1. It’s usually detected in kids, and young people. There is no known cure to prevent type 1 diabetes.

b) Type 2 diabetes can be a lifelong medical condition that causes dangerously high blood glucose (hyperglycemia). People with this condition have difficulty converting sugar (glucose) into energy. Symptoms include excessive thirst, frequent urination, and extreme fatigue. Nerve damage, skin disorders, sexual dysfunction, renal failure, and eye problems are among the complications that may develop as the disease progresses. It occurs when insulin, a hormone that is integral to bringing glucose into the cells, is less effective . A simple blood test may diagnose type 2 diabetes. It can be treated with a medication or lifestyle changes, such as diet and exercise.

c) Gestational diabetes develops during pregnancy in women who previously did not have diabetes. The baby could also be at an increased risk for health problems, and the risk for type 2 diabetes down the road.

There is a stage before diabetes, known as prediabetes. With prediabetes, blood sugar levels are more elevated than normal but not high enough for a type 2 diabetes medical diagnosis. Prediabetes raises your danger of type 2 diabetes, heart disease, and stroke.

Frequently asked questions

Diabetes is a set of diseases that result in an excessive level of sugar in the blood (high blood glucose). There are three forms of diabetes: Type1, Type2, and gestational diabetes (during pregnancy). Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes.

Two interrelated issues can trigger diabetes type 2. Cells in muscle, fat, and the liver become resistant to insulin. Since these cells don’t interact with insulin like they normally should, they do not consume adequate sugar. The pancreas cannot produce more insulin to manage blood sugar levels. This cycle continues over time, resulting in diabetes type 2.

Although there’s no treatment for type 2 diabetes, studies show some people can prevent and even reverse it. Through lifestyle modifications such as diet changes and weight reduction, you might have the ability to reach and hold typical blood glucose levels without medication.

Sugar doesn’t trigger type 2 diabetes directly, but you are most likely to get it if you are overweight. You gain more weight when you take in more calories than your body requires, and sugary foods and beverages are rich in calories.

Sweeteners, sugary drinks, trans fats, fried foods, processed foods, and dairy-free coffee creamers can increase risk of diabetes.

Type 2 diabetes is largely preventable by modifying your lifestyle. Adopt a healthy diet, exercise, lose excess weight, get 8 hours of sleep, reduce stress, and quit smoking.

Key Terms

The A1C test is a common blood test used to diagnose type 1 and type 2 diabetes. It can identify prediabetes, which raises your risk for diabetes. It can be used to diagnose diabetes. A normal A1C level is less than 5.7%, a level of 5.7-6.4% indicates prediabetes, and a level of 6.5% or higher indicates diabetes. Within the 5.7%-6.4% prediabetes range, the higher your A1C, the greater your risk is for developing type 2 diabetes.

Insulin is a hormone helps blood sugar enter the body's cells so it can be used for energy. Insulin lowers the level of glucose in the blood. Insulin also signals the liver to store blood sugar for later use. Blood sugar enters cells, and levels in the bloodstream decrease, signaling insulin to decrease too. It's made by the beta cells of the pancreas and released into the bloodstream when the glucose level goes up, such as after eating.

Blood glucose, or blood sugar is the main sugar found in your blood and the body’s main source of energy. It comes from the food you eat, and is your body's main source of energy. Your blood carries glucose to all of your body's cells to use for energy.

Diabetes is a disease in which your blood sugar levels are too high. Over time, having too much glucose in your blood can cause serious problems such as heart disease, stroke, and nerve problems among many other complications.

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