What is CBD oil?

CBD oil has emerged as a miracle cure in the past few years. However, it remains restricted owing to the regulatory status of cannabis in various countries across the globe. Cannabis has held the status of "drug of abuse" for ages. However, the oil extract of cannabis is equally useful when looking at the health benefits offered by this miracle cure.

It was identified as an effective self-medication for children related to Dravet syndrome. Since then, multiple newer CBD health benefits have been identified.

CBD is one of the compounds, known as cannabinoids, that comes from the Cannabis plant. Possible therapeutic uses of CBD have been researched.

CBD oils contain varying concentrations of CBD. It's taken from the resin of cannabis buds and blossoms and usually diluted with a different oil. The significant distinction between CBD and marijuana is that it doesn't contain THC, the psychoactive compound that everyone thinks about marijuana. That means that you won't get high from using CBD.

Terpenes are an additional category of compounds that give various flavors and scents to multiple strains of marijuana, naturally found in the cannabis plant. Over 100 distinct terpenes have been identified thus far. You will find both psychoactive and non-psychoactive forms. The theory is they interact favorably with cannabinoids to have curative effects in inflammation and pain, but more research is still needed.

CBD is an isomer of the infamous tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which is available in the form of multiple formulations. THC is psychoactive; however, the CBD isomer is non-psychoactive and is available in the way of numerous formulations. CBD oil is the most famous formulation out of all. [1]

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How does CBD oil work?

Underlying Pharmacological Mechanisms for CBD oil:

CBD functions by acting on the body's endocannabinoid system. This system's key job is to maintain homeostasis and help the body adapt to external stressors.

There are two primary types of cannabinoids--endo (produced naturally within the body) and Phyto (generated from a plant). CBD is 1 type of phytocannabinoid. Phytocannabinoids mimic endocannabinoids so that they can behave as a supplement, providing you with a boost beyond what your body can produce.

Receptors for cannabinoids are present in the reproductive, digestive, nervous, and immune systems. Because cannabinoids interact with nearly every system in our bodies, they are frequently touted as a cure-all. While they are not truly able to cure everything, they do regulate neurotransmitter function, inflammation, mitochondrial function, and metabolism.

The action of any drug is elicited only when it binds to a particular receptor in the body. It is like a lock and key mechanism. As the drug binds to a specific receptor, a chain of reactions occurs, which brings about the desired effect in the body.

CBD oil acts via G- protein-coupled receptors, CB-1 and CB-2. Binding of CBD oil to the CB- 1 receptors inhibits the synaptic action i.e., the transmission of signals between neurons. This action helps regulate seizures and epilepsy. While

CB-2 receptors are primarily responsible for immune system-related activities. CBD acts mainly via CB- 1 receptors and helps in controlling epileptic seizures.

Apart from CB-1, CBD also binds to the transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, which are responsible for the legislation of intracellular calcium levels. CBD helps in the modulation of calcium level and exhibit neuroprotective action. [2]



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CBD oil benefits

CBD Oil Health Benefits:

CBD offers a range of health benefits. Some of them have been identified, and others are in the pipeline. A few of them have been elaborated below:

1. Anti-inflammatory activity of CBD oil: The most widely known property exhibited by CBD Oil is due to the virtue of its anti-inflammatory action. CBD oil has been known to show high affinity towards the cannabinoid receptors. They function by promoting the resolution of inflammation by increasing the production of eicosanoids. It has shown significant results in the treatment of inflammation in arthritis, intestinal inflammation, joint, and synovial inflammation. Studies have suggested that CBD Oil is also used for the treatment of Multiple Sclerosis. It is a neurodegenerative disease, with the significant complication being inflammation. Other recent studies indicate that the anti-inflammatory effect of CBD Oil provides relief from chronic neuropathic pain, rheumatoid arthritis, postoperative pain, and fibromyalgia.[3]

2. Neuroprotective activity of CBD oil: The central nervous system has an abundance of cannabinoid receptors. These receptors regulate various neuropsychological processes like pain, appetite, cognition, etc. CBD Oil benefits by playing a significant role in the treatment and prevention of various neurological disorders like Alzheimer's Disease, Cerebral Ischemia, Multiple Sclerosis, Parkinson's Disease, and Huntington's Disease.[4] 

CBD Oil is also used for the treatment of epilepsy. It provides neuroprotective action against the excited state of the brain. The anticonvulsant effect of CBD oil helps to treat the epileptic condition as it induces partial restoration of the dysfunctional neurotransmitter.[5]

3. CBD Oil to reduce anxiety and depression: Cannabis or hemp plants have been known to attenuate fear and anxiety to promote a healthy stress response as well as good health. CBD Oil also exhibits such effects to improve the quality of life of patients suffering from depression and anxiety disorders. It is known that the cannabinoid receptors present in the brain control emotional behavior, sleep cycle, mood changes, etc. CBD Oil acts on these receptors by lowering the heart rate and blood pressure as a response to stress conditions. It reduces panic attacks and episodes of anxiety. The administration of CBD Oil in patients suffering from anxiety and depression attenuates the flight and fight response to combat physical and mental stress.[6] 

4. CBD Oil for management of Diabetes: CBD Oil has shown beneficial effects to treat patients suffering from diabetes. It is used for the treatment of both diabetes Type 1 and Type 2. The oil prevents the sensitivity of the body towards insulin and also prevents insulin resistance. It helps to maintain a healthy blood sugar level with regular and continuous use.

5. CBD Oil for Heart health: CBD Oil has a beneficial effect on cardiac health as it regulates the cholesterol level by regulating the uptake of lipids. It exhibits the regulatory action by binding to the receptors that control the blood pressure and lipid uptake. Along with the anti-inflammatory and anti-anxiety activity, CBD oil helps to lower high blood pressure and maintain good cardiac health by reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases, heart attacks, and stroke.[7]

6. CBD Oil for a Healthy Skin: Skincare products having CBD Oil has become a new trend and has been hitting the market due to its beneficial effects. The CBD Oil binds with the endocannabinoid receptors present in the skin and works to maintain the skin homeostasis. It has been known to show assuring results for the treatment of skin diseases as well as skin inflammation. Some promising results in the treatment of skin conditions like acne, atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, allergic responses have been the major benefits of CBD oil.  As a result of the anti-inflammatory property of the oil, it controls the production of sebum and provides protection against bacteria for acne-prone skin.[8]

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Who can explore CBD oil use?

The WHO (World Health Organization) reported that CBD is safe for almost everyone. Studies have shown several CBD oil advantages, which range from relieving social stress to improving rheumatoid arthritis. As always, it is best to talk to your doctor prior to trying any new treatment.

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Side effects of CBD oil

CBD has few side effects and is believed to be a safe material to use. Some of the side effects of CBD are:

- nausea

- reduced appetite

- gastrointestinal problems

- dry mouth

- vomiting

- infections

- rashes

- reduced urination

- breathing problems

- diarrhea


All are usually mild, dose-dependent, and fixed in 2 to 4 hours. If you notice any of them, stop using CBD and visit your physician. Some people may also reveal abnormalities in liver function testing.


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Summary

Cannabidiol oil has emerged as a potent therapeutic agent in recent years owing to its numerous beneficial properties. Although the use of CBD oil is banned in various countries, its health benefits are gaining popularity. CBD oil is used for patients suffering from neurodegenerative disorders like Parkinson's disease, epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease, etc. Apart from these, it has also exhibited therapeutic activity in patients who have diabetes ( both Type 1 and Type 2). It helps to maintain cardiovascular health and have neuroprotective action. Its primary effect is anti-inflammatory in nature that makes it useful to treat conditions of chronic pain, arthritis, joint pains, etc. It is also used for skin care of acne-prone skin and to treat skin diseases.

See: Ginger for migraine pain relief

References

1. Barnett, Z. CBD Oil and Hemp Extracts: Uses, Health Benefits, and Risks.

2. Zayed, A., & Team, C. E. An Overview of CBD Hemp Oil–Manufacture, Benefits, Uses & Much More!.

3. Burstein, S. H., & Zurier, R. B. (2009). Cannabinoids, endocannabinoids, and related analogs in inflammation. The AAPS journal, 11(1), 109.

4. Gowran, A., Noonan, J., & Campbell, V. A. (2011). The multiplicity of action of cannabinoids: implications for treating neurodegeneration. CNS neuroscience & therapeutics, 17(6), 637-644.

5. Capasso, A. (2017). Do cannabinoids confer neuroprotection against epilepsy? An overview. The open neurology journal, 11, 61.

6. Brinkerhoff jr, J. How CBD Oil Helps Anxiety, Fear, and Stress.

7. How, C. B. D. Benefits of CBD Oil.

8. Simpson, P., & Team, C. E. The Health Benefits of Cannabinoids for Skin Health Cannabis-based skincare and beauty brands are rapidly hitting the market. Find out why this plant may have something to offer for healthy skin.

 

See: Homeopathy for Pre-Diabetes

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