Nageen Sharma
Craniosacral therapy
Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan
Years of experience 3

Total years in practice: 3

Published Date
May 31, 2016
Abstract Authors
Dongxu Fu, Jeremy Y Yu, Anna R Connell, Shihe Yang, Michelle B Hookham, Rebecca McLeese, Timothy J Lyons
Abstract Source
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2016 Jun 1 ;57(7):3369-79. PMID: 27367504
Abstract Affiliation
Dongxu Fu
Study Type
Research
Conditions
Diabetic Retinopathy
Therapies
Naturopathic Medicine
Reference
Abstract Content
PURPOSE: Limited mechanistic understanding of diabetic retinopathy (DR) has hindered therapeutic advances. Berberine, an isoquinolone alkaloid, has shown favorable effects on glucose and lipid metabolism in animal and human studies, but effects on DR are unknown. We previously demonstrated intraretinal extravasation and modification of LDL in human diabetes, and toxicity of modified LDL to human retinal Müller cells. We now explore pathogenic effects of modified LDL on Müller cells, and the efficacy of berberine in mitigating this cytotoxicity.
METHODS:
Confluent human Müller cells were exposed to in vitro-modified 'highly oxidized, glycated (HOG-) LDL versus native-LDL (N-LDL; 200 mg protein/L) for 6 or 24 hours, with/without pretreatment with berberine (5 ?M, 1 hour) and/or the adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibitor, Compound C(5 ?M, 1 hour). Using techniques including Western blots, reactive oxygen species (ROS) detection assay, and quantitative real-time PCR, the following outcomes were assessed: cell viability (CCK-8 assay), autophagy (LC3, Beclin-1, ATG-5), apoptosis (cleaved caspase 3, cleaved poly-ADP ribose polymerase), oxidative stress (ROS, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2, glutathione peroxidase 1, NADPH oxidase 4), angiogenesis (VEGF, pigment epithelium-derived factor), inflammation (inducible nitric oxide synthase, intercellular adhesion molecule 1, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-?), and glial cell activation (glial fibrillary acidic protein).
Results:
Native-LDL had no effect on cultured human Müller cells, but HOG-LDL exhibited marked toxicity, significantly decreasing viability and inducing autophagy, apoptosis, oxidative stress, expression of angiogenic factors, inflammation, and glial cell activation. Berberine attenuated all the effects of HOG-LDL (all P
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