Functional medicine
18 Case Studies
39 Member Stories
2281 Research

Around the world over thousands of years, patients have received root-cause holistic treatment for their diseases with personalized treatment, diet and lifestyle modification recommendations. Read the inspiring true stories of practitioners who heal people and who recovered from their problems after Functional-Medicine treatment at their clinics. Many have been generous to share their knowledge and experience for the benefit of other holistic experts and patients alike. Many practitioners share their Case Studies and the healing powers of Functional-Medicine and related therapies as they heal people who benefited from our expertise.

July 2010

In recent decades, romaine lettuce has been one of the fastest growing vegetables with respect to its consumption and production. An understanding is needed of the effect of major phenolic phytochemicals from romaine lettuce on biological protection for neuron-like PC-12 cells. Phenolics in fresh romaine lettuce were extracted, and then its total phenolics and total antioxidant capacity were measured spectrophotometrically. Neuroprotective effects of phenolic extract of romaine lettuce and its pure caffeic acid derivatives (caffeic, chicoric, chlorogenic, and isochlorogenic acids) in PC-12 cells were evaluated using two different in vitro
lactate dehydrogenase release and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide reduction assays. Total phenolics and total antioxidant capacity of 100 g of fresh romaine lettuce averaged 22.7 mg of gallic acid equivalents and 31.0 mg of vitamin C equivalents, respectively. The phenolic extract of romaine lettuce protected PC-12 cells against oxidative stress caused by H(2)O(2) in a dose-dependent manner. Isochlorogenic acid, one of the phenolics in romaine lettuce, showed stronger neuroprotection than the other three caffeic acid derivatives also found in the lettuce. Although romaine lettuce had lower levels of phenolics and antioxidant capacity compared to other common vegetables, its contribution to total antioxidant capacity and antineurodegenerative effect in human diets would be higher because of higher amounts of its daily per capita consumption compared to other common vegetables.

April 2002

The use of wheat grass (Triticum aestivum) juice for treatment of various gastrointestinal and other conditions had been suggested by its proponents for more than 30 years, but was never clinically assessed in a controlled trial. A preliminary unpublished pilot study suggested efficacy of wheat grass juice in the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC).
A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. One gastroenterology unit in a tertiary hospital and three study coordinating centers in three major cities in Israel. Twenty-three patients diagnosed clinically and sigmoidoscopically with active distal UC were randomly allocated to receive either 100 cc of wheat grass juice, or a matching placebo, daily for 1 month. Efficacy of treatment was assessed by a 4-fold activity index that included rectal bleeding and number of bowel movements as determined from patient diary records, a sigmoidoscopic evaluation, and global assessment by a physician.
Twenty-one patients completed the study, and full information was available on 19 of them. Treatment with wheat grass juice was associated with significant reductions in the overall activity index (P=0.031) and in the severity of rectal bleeding (P = 0.025). No serious side effects were found. Fresh extract of wheat grass demonstrated a prominent tracing in cyclic voltammetry methodology, presumably corresponding to four groups of compounds that exhibit anti-oxidative properties.
Wheat grass juice appeared effective and safe as a single or adjuvant treatment of active distal UC.

December 2014

Background. Purple sweet potato leaves (PSPL) are widely grown and are considered a healthy vegetable in Taiwan. PSPL contain a high content of flavonoids, and the boiling water-extracted PSPL (PSPLE) is believed to prevent metabolic syndrome. However, its efficacy has not yet been verified. Therefore, we investigated the effect of PSPLE on adipocytes. Methods. The differentiated 3T3-L1 cells used in this study were derived from preadipocytes that were differentiated into adipocytes using an adipogenic agent (insulin, dexamethasone, and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine); approximately 90% of the cells were differentiated using this method. Results. Treating the differentiated 3T3-L1 cells with PSPLE caused a dose-dependent decrease in the number of adipocytes rather than preadipocytes. In addition, treatment with PSPLE resulted in apoptosis of the differentiated 3T3-L1 cells as determined by DAPI analysis and flow cytometry. PSPLE also increased the expression of cleaved caspase-3 and poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP). Furthermore, PSPLE induced downregulation of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) gene expression in the differentiated 3T3-L1 cells. Conclusions. These results suggest that PSPLE not only induced apoptosis but also downregulated inflammation-associated genes in the differentiated 3T3-L1 cells.

June 2016

Raspberries (Rubus idaeus L.) have been extensively studies worldwide because of their beneficial effects on health. Recently reports indicate that crude extracts of Rubus idaeus (RIE) have antioxidant and anticancer ability. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mechanism of its antimetastatic ability in oral cancer cells. In this study, SCC-9 and SAS oral cancer cells were subjected to a treatment with RIE and then analyzed the effect of RIE on migration and invasion. The addition of RIE inhibited the migration and invasion ability of oral cancer cells. Real time PCR, western blot and zymography analysis demonstrated that mRNA, protein expression and enzyme activity of matrix metalloproteinases-2 (MMP-2) were down-regulated by RIE. Moreover, the phosphorylation of Focal adhesion kinase (FAK), src, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) were inhibited after RIE treatment. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that RIE exerted an inhibitory effect of migration and invasion in oral cancer cells and alter metastasis by suppression of MMP-2 expression through FAK/Scr/ERK signaling pathway.© 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2016.

January 2008

This study compared the differences of two types of buckwheat sprouts, namely, common buckwheat ( Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) and tartary buckwheat ( Fagopyrum tataricum (L.) Gaertn.), in general composition, functional components, and antioxidant capacity. The ethanol extracts of tartary buckwheat sprouts (TBS) had higher reducing power, free radical scavenging activity, and superoxide anion scavenging activity than those of common buckwheat sprouts (CBS). As for chelating effects on ferrous ions, CBS had higher values than TBS. Rutin was the major flavonoid found in these two types of buckwheat sprouts, and TBS was 5 fold higher in rutin than CBS. The antioxidant effects of buckwheat sprouts on human hepatoma HepG2 cells revealed that both of TBS and CBS could decrease the production of intracellular peroxide and remove the intracellular superoxide anions in HepG2 cells, but TBS reduced the cellular oxidative stress more effectively than CBS, possibly because of its higher rutin (and quercetin) content.

December 2015

Benefits to health from a high consumption of fruits and vegetables are well established and have been attributed to bioactive secondary metabolites present in edible plants. However, the effects of specific health-related phytochemicals within a complex food matrix are difficult to assess. In an attempt to address this problem, we have used elicitation to improve the nutraceutical content of seedlings of Brassica oleracea grown under controlled conditions. Analysis, by LC-MS, of the glucosinolate, isothiocyanate and phenolic compound content of juices obtained from sprouts indicated that elicitation induces an enrichment of several phenolics, particularly of the anthocyanin fraction. To test the biological activity of basal and enriched juices we took advantage of a recently developed in vitro model of inflamed human intestinal epithelium. Both sprouts' juices protected intestinal barrier integrity in Caco-2 cells exposed to tumor necrosis factor? under marginal zinc deprivation, with the enriched juice showing higher protection. Multivariate regression analysis indicated that the extent of rescue from stress-induced epithelial dysfunction correlated with the composition in bioactive molecules of the juices and, in particular, with a groupof phenolic compounds, including several anthocyanins, quercetin-3-Glc, cryptochlorogenic, neochlorogenic and cinnamic acids.
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